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Chad Country Information

Travel Advice with Country Information from the CIA.

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Chad Map

Introduction

Background

Chad emerged from a collection of powerful states that controlled the Sahelian belt starting around the 9th century. These states focused on controlling trans-Saharan trade routes and profited mostly from the slave trade. The Kanem-Bornu Empire, centered around the Lake Chad Basin, existed between the 9th and 19th centuries, and during its peak, the empire controlled territory stretching from southern Chad to southern Libya and included portions of modern-day Algeria, Cameroon, Nigeria, Niger, and Sudan. The Sudanese warlord Rabih AZ-ZUBAYR used an army comprised largely of slaves to conquer the Kanem-Bornu Empire in the late 19th century. In southeastern Chad, the Bagirmi and Ouaddai (Wadai) kingdoms emerged in the 15th and 16th centuries and lasted until the arrival of the French in the 19th and 20th centuries. France began moving into the region in the late 1880s and defeated the Bagirmi kingdom in 1897, Rabih AZ-ZUBAYR in 1900, and the Ouddai kingdom in 1909. In the arid regions of northern Chad and southern Libya, an Islamic order called the Sanusiyya (Sanusi) relied heavily on the trans-Saharan slave trade and had upwards of 3 million followers by the 1880s. The French arrived in the region in the early 1900s and defeated the Sanusiyya in 1910 after years of intermittent war. By 1910, France had incorporated the northern arid region, the Lake Chad Basin, and southeastern Chad into French Equatorial Africa.  

Chad achieved its independence in 1960 and saw three decades of instability, oppressive rule, civil war, and a Libyan invasion. With the help of the French military and several African countries, Chadian leaders expelled Libyan forces during the 1987 "Toyota War," so named for the use of Toyota pickup trucks as fighting vehicles. In 1990, Chadian general Idriss DEBY led a rebellion against President Hissene HABRE. Under DEBY, Chad drafted and approved a constitution and held elections in 1996. DEBY won elections in 1996 and 2001. In June 2005, he held a referendum effectively removing constitutional term limits and has been in power ever since. Chad is scheduled to hold a presidential election in April 2021 - Deby’s 6th term as president if he wins.

Chad faces widespread poverty, an economy severely weakened by low international oil prices, and rebel and terrorist-led insurgencies in the Lake Chad Basin. Additionally, northern Chad has seen several waves of rebellions since 1998. In late 2015, the government imposed a state of emergency in the Lake Chad Basin following multiple attacks by the terrorist group Boko Haram, now known as ISIS-West Africa. In mid-2015, Boko Haram conducted bombings in N'Djamena. In late 2019, the Chadian government also declared a state of emergency in the Sila and Ouaddai regions bordering Sudan and in the Tibesti region bordering Niger where rival ethnic groups are still fighting. The army has suffered heavy losses to Islamic terror groups in the Lake Chad Basin. In March 2020, ISIS-West Africa fighters attacked a Chadian military camp in the Lake Chad Basin and killed nearly 100 soldiers; it was the deadliest attack in the history of the Chadian military.

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Definitions and Notes

Geography

Location

Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates

15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references

Africa

Area

total: 1.284 million sq km

land:1,259,200 sq km

water:24,800 sq km

country comparison to the world: 22

Area - comparative

almost nine times the size of New York state; slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries

total: 6,406 km

border countries (6):Cameroon 1116 km, Central African Republic 1556 km, Libya 1050 km, Niger 1196 km, Nigeria 85 km, Sudan 1403 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain

broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation

highest point: Emi Koussi 3,445 m

lowest point:Djourab 160 m

mean elevation:543 m

Natural resources

petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt

Land use

agricultural land: 39.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 35.7% (2018 est.)

forest:9.1% (2018 est.)

other:51.3% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

300 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

45.7 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Population distribution

the population is unevenly distributed due to contrasts in climate and physical geography; the highest density is found in the southwest, particularly around Lake Chad and points south; the dry Saharan zone to the north is the least densely populated as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:Marine Dumping-London Convention

Geography - note

note 1: Chad is the largest of Africa's 16 landlocked countries

note 2: not long ago - geologically speaking - what is today the Sahara was green savannah teeming with wildlife; during the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope lived there; the last remnant of the "Green Sahara" exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site

note 3: Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad; at its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period; it covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), roughly the size of today's Caspian Sea

People and Society

Population

17,414,108 (July 2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 68

Nationality

noun: Chadian(s)

adjective:Chadian

Ethnic groups

Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 30.5%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.8%, Arab 9.7%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.7%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.5%, Mundang 2.7%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.5%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.4%, Tupuri/Kera 2%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.8%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.2%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.4%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.3%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 est.)

Languages

French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

Religions

Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Roman Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 est.)

Demographic profile

Despite the start of oil production in 2003, 40% of Chad’s population lives below the poverty line. The population will continue to grow rapidly because of the country’s very high fertility rate and large youth cohort – more than 65% of the populace is under the age of 25 – although the mortality rate is high and life expectancy is low. Chad has the world’s third highest maternal mortality rate. Among the primary risk factors are poverty, anemia, rural habitation, high fertility, poor education, and a lack of access to family planning and obstetric care. Impoverished, uneducated adolescents living in rural areas are most affected. To improve women’s reproductive health and reduce fertility, Chad will need to increase women’s educational attainment, job participation, and knowledge of and access to family planning. Only about a quarter of women are literate, less than 5% use contraceptives, and more than 40% undergo genital cutting.

As of October 2017, more than 320,000 refugees from Sudan and more than 75,000 from the Central African Republic strain Chad’s limited resources and create tensions in host communities. Thousands of new refugees fled to Chad in 2013 to escape worsening violence in the Darfur region of Sudan. The large refugee populations are hesitant to return to their home countries because of continued instability. Chad was relatively stable in 2012 in comparison to other states in the region, but past fighting between government forces and opposition groups and inter-communal violence have left nearly 60,000 of its citizens displaced in the eastern part of the country.

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Chad

conventional short form:Chad

local long form:Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad

local short form:Tchad/Tshad

etymology:named for Lake Chad, which lies along the country's western border; the word "tsade" means "large body of water" or "lake" in several local native languages

note: the only country whose name is composed of a single syllable with a single vowel

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: N'Djamena

geographic coordinates:12 06 N, 15 02 E

time difference:UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name taken from the Arab name of a nearby village, Nijamina, meaning "place of rest" 

Administrative divisions

23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh-El-Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi-Est, Mayo-Kebbi-Ouest, Moyen-Chari, N'Djamena, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Wadi-Fira

Independence

11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest approved 30 April 2018 by the National Assembly, entered into force 4 May 2018

amendments:proposed as a revision by the president of the republic after a Council of Ministers (cabinet) decision or by the National Assembly; approval for consideration of a revision requires at least three-fifths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval by referendum or at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly (2021)

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only:both parents must be citizens of Chad

dual citizenship recognized:Chadian law does not address dual citizenship

residency requirement for naturalization:15 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Interim President Mahamat Idriss DEBY; note - on 20 April 2021, President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. died of injuries he sustained following clashes between government forces he was commanding and insurgents in the northern part of the country

head of government:Interim President Mahamat Idriss DEBY; note - on 20 April 2021, President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. died of injuries he sustained following clashes between government forces he was commanding and insurgents in the northern part of the country

cabinet:Council of Ministers

elections/appointments:president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 10 April 2016 (next to be held on 10 April 2021)

election results:Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR (CTPD) 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (CAP-SUR) 5.1%, other 9.8%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 163 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 25 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:

last held on 13 February and 6 May 2011 (next originally scheduled on 13 December 2020 but postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic)



election results:percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 117, UNDR 10, RDP 9, RNDT/Le Reveil 8, URD 8, Viva-RNDP 5, FAR 4, CTPD 2, PDSA 2, PUR 2, UDR 2, other 19; composition - men 164, women 24, percent of women 12.8%

note: the National Assembly mandate was extended to 2020, reportedly due to a lack of funding for the scheduled 2015 election; the MPS has held a majority in the NA since 1997

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 3 chamber presidents, and 12 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)

judge selection and term of office:Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms

subordinate courts:High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace

Political parties and leaders

Chadian Convention for Peace and Development or CTPD [Laoukein Kourayo MEDAR]
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
Framework of Popular Action for Solidarity and Unity of the Republic or CAP-SUR [Joseph Djimrangar DADNADJI]
National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ahmat ALHABO]
Party for Unity and Reconciliation
Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Idriss DEBY]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]RNDT/Le Reveil [Albert Pahimi PADACKE]
Social Democratic Party for a Change-over of Power or PDSA [Malloum YOBODA]
Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Felix Romadoumngar NIALBE]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Ngote Gali KOUTOU (since 22 June 2018)

chancery:2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:[1] (202) 652-1312

FAX:[1] (202) 758-0431

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David GILMOUR (since December 2020)

telephone:[235] 2251-5017

embassy:US Embassy N’Djamena, B.P. 413, N’Djamena

mailing address:B. P. 413, N'Djamena

FAX:[235] 2253-9102

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow (gold) of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; gold represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice

note: almost identical to the flag of Romania but with a darker shade of blue; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design based on the flag of France

National symbol(s)

goat (north), lion (south); national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)

lyrics/music:Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD

note: adopted 1960

Economy

Economic overview

Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. The services sector contributes less than one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking.

Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shutdowns occasionally result in shortages. The country regulates the price of domestic fuel, providing an incentive for black market sales.

Although high oil prices and strong local harvests supported the economy in the past, low oil prices now stress Chad’s fiscal position and have resulted in significant government cutbacks. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most of its public and private sector investment. Investment in Chad is difficult due to its limited infrastructure, lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. Chad obtained a three-year extended credit facility from the IMF in 2014 and was granted debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative in April 2015.

In 2018, economic policy will be driven by efforts that started in 2016 to reverse the recession and to repair damage to public finances and exports. The government is implementing an emergency action plan to counterbalance the drop in oil revenue and to diversify the economy. Chad’s national development plan (NDP) cost just over $9 billion with a financing gap of $6.7 billion. The NDP emphasized the importance of private sector participation in Chad’s development, as well as the need to improve the business environment, particularly in priority sectors such as mining and agriculture.

The Government of Chad reached a deal with Glencore and four other banks on the restructuring of a $1.45 billion oil-backed loan in February 2018, after a long negotiation. The new terms include an extension of the maturity to 2030 from 2022, a two-year grace period on principal repayments, and a lower interest rate of the London Inter-bank Offer Rate (Libor) plus 2% - down from Libor plus 7.5%. The original Glencore loan was to be repaid with crude oil assets, however, Chad's oil sales were hit by the downturn in the price of oil. Chad had secured a $312 million credit from the IMF in June 2017, but release of those funds hinged on restructuring the Glencore debt. Chad had already cut public spending to try to meet the terms of the IMF program, but that prompted strikes and protests in a country where nearly 40% of the population lives below the poverty line. Multinational partners, such as the African Development Bank, the EU, and the World Bank are likely to continue budget support in 2018, but Chad will remain at high debt risk, given its dependence on oil revenue and pressure to spend on subsidies and security.

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 6,540

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants:less than 1 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 201

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7,857,758

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants:48.06 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: inadequate system of radio telephone communication stations with high maintenance costs and low telephone density; Chad remains one of the least developed on the African continent, telecom infrastructure is particularly low, with penetration rates in all sectors - fixed, mobile and Internet -well below African averages; low usage also due to 18% excise duty tax on telecom services and a negative impact on operator revenue (2020)

domestic:fixed-line connections less than 1 per 100 persons, with mobile-cellular subscribership base of about 48 per 100 persons (2019)

international:country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

1 state-owned TV station; 2 privately-owned TV stations; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; over 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2017)

Internet country code

.td

Internet users

total: 1,029,153

percent of population:6.5% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 140

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 334

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants:less than 1 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 202

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers:3

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

TT

Airports

total: 59 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 81

Airports - with paved runways

total: 9 (2017)

over 3,047 m:2 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m:4 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m:2 (2017)

under 914 m:1 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 50 (2013)

over 3,047 m:1 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m:2 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m:14 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m:22 (2013)

under 914 m:11 (2013)

Pipelines

582 km oil (2013)

Roadways

total: 40,000 km (2018)

note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved

country comparison to the world: 89

Waterways

(Chari and Legone Rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), General Direction of the Security Services of State Institutions (Direction Generale des Services de Securite des Institutions de l'Etat, GDSSIE); National Gendarmerie; National Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2020)

note(s): the GDSSIE, formerly known as the Republican Guard, is the presidential guard force and considered Chad's elite military unit; it is comprised of men from President DEBY's own Zaghawa ethnic group, has the best equipment, and reports directly to him; the Chadian Army also includes the US-trained and equipped Special Anti-Terrorist Group (SATG)

Military expenditures

2.2% of GDP (2019 est.)

2.3% of GDP (2018)

2.2% of GDP (2017)

1.8% of GDP (2016)

2% of GDP (2015)

country comparison to the world: 49

Military and security service personnel strengths

estimates for the size of the Chadian National Army (ANT) vary; approximately 35,000 active personnel (30,000 Ground Forces; 300 Air Force; 5,000 General Direction of the Security Services of State Institutions); 5,000 National Gendarmerie; 3,500 National Nomadic Guard of Chad (2020)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the ANT is mostly armed with older or second-hand equipment from Belgium, France, Russia, and the former Soviet Union; since 2010, it has received equipment, including donations, from a variety of countries, including China, Italy, Ukraine, and the US (2020)

Military deployments

1,800 Mali (MINUSMA) (Jan 2021)

note(s): Chad is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger; Chad has committed 550 troops and 100 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane; Chad hosts the headquarters of Operation Barkhane in N’Djamena

Chad has committed approximately 1,000-1,500 troops to the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) against Boko Haram; national MNJTF troop contingents are deployed within their own territories, although cross‐border operations are conducted periodically; in 2019, Chad sent more than 1,000 troops to Nigeria’s Borno State to fight BH as part of the MNJTF mission

Military service age and obligation

20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age 21 (2019)

Military - note

the ANT is chiefly focused on counterinsurgency/counter-terrorist operations against Boko Haram (BH) and the Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) in the Lake Chad Basin area (primarily the Lac Province) and countering the terrorist threat in the Sahel; in 2020, it conducted a large military operation against BH in the Lake Chad region; that same year, Chad sent troops to the tri-border area with Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger to combat ISWA militants (it also contributes a large force to the UN MINUSCA mission in Mali); the ANT  has frequently conducted counter-insurgency operations (COIN) against internal anti-government militias and armed dissident groups

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Boko Haram; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham – West Africa (2020)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 372,722 (Sudan), 114,445 (Central African Republic), 16,294 (Nigeria) (2021)

IDPs:401,511 (majority are in the east) (2021)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Chad and Chadians abroad; most trafficking is internal; some children are sent by their parents to relatives or intermediaries to receive education, an apprenticeship, goods, or money and are then forced to work in domestic service or cattle herding; children are also forced to work in agriculture, gold mines, charcoal vending, and fishing, and those attending Koranic schools are forced into begging and street vending; girls from rural areas who search for work in larger towns are exploited in sex trafficking and domestic servitude; terrorist groups abduct children to serve as soldiers, suicide bombers, brides, and forced laborers

tier rating:Tier 2 Watch List — Chad does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; one trafficker was convicted, the first under a 2018 law, but the government did not report investigating or prosecuting alleged traffickers, including complicit government officials; the government adopted a formal Road Map to implement its 2108 National Action Plan but did not report executing it; authorities did not identify any victims and have not drafted victim identification and referral procedures; the government continued to make no effort to raise awareness on trafficking (2020)

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