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El Salvador Country Information

Travel Advice with Country Information from the CIA.

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El Salvador Map



El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms. El Salvador is beset by one of the world's highest homicide rates and pervasive criminal gangs.



Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates

13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean


total: 21,041 sq km

land:20,721 sq km

water:320 sq km

country comparison to the world: 153

Area - comparative

about the same size as New Jersey

Land boundaries

total: 590 km

border countries (2):Guatemala 199 km, Honduras 391 km


307 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone:24 nm

exclusive economic zone:200 nm


tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands


mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau


highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

lowest point:Pacific Ocean 0 m

mean elevation:442 m

Natural resources

hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 74.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 33.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 30.7% (2018 est.)

forest:13.6% (2018 est.)

other:11.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

452 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

26.27 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Population distribution

athough it is the smallest country in land area in Central America, El Salvador has a population that is 18 times larger than Belize; at least 20% of the population lives abroad; high population density country-wide, with particular concentration around the capital of San Salvador

Natural hazards

known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes

volcanism: significant volcanic activity; San Salvador (1,893 m), which last erupted in 1917, has the potential to cause major harm to the country's capital, which lies just below the volcano's slopes; San Miguel (2,130 m), which last erupted in 2002, is one of the most active volcanoes in the country; other historically active volcanoes include Conchaguita, Ilopango, Izalco, and Santa Ana

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:Law of the Sea

Geography - note

smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on the Caribbean Sea

People and Society


6,528,135 (July 2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109


noun: Salvadoran(s)


Ethnic groups

Mestizo 86.3%, White 12.7%, Amerindian 0.2% (includes Lenca, Kakawira, Nahua-Pipil), Black 0.1%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)


Spanish (official), Nawat (among some Amerindians)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Spanish audio sample:


Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 36%, other 2%, none 12% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile

El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America. It is well into its demographic transition, experiencing slower population growth, a decline in its number of youths, and the gradual aging of its population. The increased use of family planning has substantially lowered El Salvador's fertility rate, from approximately 6 children per woman in the 1970s to replacement level today. A 2008 national family planning survey showed that female sterilization remained the most common contraception method in El Salvador - its sterilization rate is among the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean - but that the use of injectable contraceptives is growing. Fertility differences between rich and poor and urban and rural women are narrowing.

Salvadorans fled during the 1979 to 1992 civil war mainly to the United States but also to Canada and to neighboring Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Emigration to the United States increased again in the 1990s and 2000s as a result of deteriorating economic conditions, natural disasters (Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and earthquakes in 2001), and family reunification. At least 20% of El Salvador's population lives abroad. The remittances they send home account for close to 20% of GDP, are the second largest source of external income after exports, and have helped reduce poverty.


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador

conventional short form:El Salvador

local long form:Republica de El Salvador

local short form:El Salvador

etymology:name is an abbreviation of the original Spanish conquistador designation for the area "Provincia de Nuestro Senor Jesus Cristo, el Salvador del Mundo" (Province of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the World), which became simply "El Salvador" (The Savior)

Government type

presidential republic


name: San Salvador

geographic coordinates:13 42 N, 89 12 W

time difference:UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: Spanish for "Holy Savior" (referring to Jesus Christ)

Administrative divisions

14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, Usulutan


15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 15 September (1821)


history: many previous; latest drafted 16 December 1983, enacted 23 December 1983

amendments:proposals require agreement by absolute majority of the Legislative Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; constitutional articles on basic principles, and citizen rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003, 2009, 2014

Legal system

civil law system with minor common law influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only:yes

dual citizenship recognized:yes

residency requirement for naturalization:5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (since 1 June 2019); Vice President Felix Augusto Antonio ULLOA Garay (since 1 June 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government:President Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (since 1 June 2019); Vice President Felix Augusto Antonio ULLOA Garay (since 1 June 2019)

cabinet:Council of Ministers selected by the president

elections/appointments:president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 5-year term; election last held on 3 February 2019 (next to be held on February 2024)

election results:
2019: Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez elected president - Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (GANA) 53.1%, Carlos CALLEJA Hakker (ARENA) 31.72%, Hugo MARTINEZ (FMLN) 14.41%, other 0.77%

2014: Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN (FMLN) 48.9%, Norman QUIJANO (ARENA) 39%, Antonio SACA (CN) 11.4%, other 0.7%; percent of vote in second round - Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN 50.1%, Norman QUIJANO 49.9%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies and a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 3-year terms)

elections:last held on 28 February 2021 (next to be held in 2024)

election results:percent of vote by party - NI 66.46%, ARENA 12.18%, FMLN 6.91%, GANA 5.29%, PCN 4.08%, NT 1.7%, PDC 1.7%, V 1.01%; seats by party - NI 56, ARENA 14, GANA 5, FMLN 4, PCN 2, PDC 1, NT 1, V 1; composition - men 61, women 23, percent of women 27.4%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 16 judges and 16 substitutes judges organized into Constitutional, Civil, Penal, and Administrative Conflict Chambers)

judge selection and term of office:judges elected by the Legislative Assembly on the recommendation of both the National Council of the Judicature, an independent body elected by the Legislative Assembly, and the Bar Association; judges elected for 9-year terms, with renewal of one-third of membership every 3 years; consecutive reelection is allowed

subordinate courts:Appellate Courts; Courts of First Instance; Courts of Peace

Political parties and leaders

Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo Antonio PARKER Soto]
Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Oscar ORTIZ]
Great Alliance for National Unity or GANA [Nelson GUARDADO]
National Coalition Party or PCN [Manuel RODRIGUEZ]
Nationalist Republican Alliance or ARENA [Erick SALGUERO]
New Ideas (Nuevas Ideas) or NI [Xavier Zablah BUKELE]
Our Time (Nuestro Tiempo) or NT [Juan VALIENTE]
Vamos or V [Josue ALVARADO Flores]

International organization participation

BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Carmen Milena MAYORGA VALERA (since 23 December 2020)

chancery:1400 16th Street NW, Suite 100, Washington, DC 20036

telephone:[1] (202) 595-7500

FAX:[1] (202) 232-1928

consulate(s) general:Atlanta, Boston, Brentwood (NY), Chicago, Dallas, Doral (FL), Doraville (GA), Houston, Las Vegas (NV), Los Angeles, McAllen (TX), New York, Nogales (AZ), San Francisco, Silver Spring (MD), Tucson (AZ), Washington, DC, Woodbridge (VA)

consulate(s):Elizabeth (NJ), Newark (NJ), Seattle, Woodbridge (VA)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jean MANES (since 1 June 2021)

embassy:Final Boulevard Santa Elena, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador

mailing address:3450 San Salvador Place, Washington, DC 20521-3450

telephone:[503] 2501-2999

FAX:[503] 2501-2150

email address and website:ACSSanSal@state.gov

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of cobalt blue (top), white, and cobalt blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; the banner is based on the former blue-white-blue flag of the Federal Republic of Central America; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, while the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water, as well as peace and prosperity

note: similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

National symbol(s)

turquoise-browed motmot (bird); national colors: blue, white

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional de El Salvador" (National Anthem of El Salvador)

lyrics/music:Juan Jose CANAS/Juan ABERLE

note: officially adopted 1953, in use since 1879; at 4:20 minutes, the anthem of El Salvador is one of the world's longest


Economic overview

The smallest country in Central America geographically, El Salvador has the fourth largest economy in the region. With the global recession, real GDP contracted in 2009 and economic growth has since remained low, averaging less than 2% from 2010 to 2014, but recovered somewhat in 2015-17 with an average annual growth rate of 2.4%. Remittances accounted for approximately 18% of GDP in 2017 and were received by about a third of all households.

In 2006, El Salvador was the first country to ratify the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement, which has bolstered the export of processed foods, sugar, and ethanol, and supported investment in the apparel sector amid increased Asian competition. In September 2015, El Salvador kicked off a five-year $277 million second compact with the Millennium Challenge Corporation - a US Government agency aimed at stimulating economic growth and reducing poverty - to improve El Salvador's competitiveness and productivity in international markets.

The Salvadoran Government maintained fiscal discipline during reconstruction and rebuilding following earthquakes in 2001 and hurricanes in 1998 and 2005, but El Salvador's public debt, estimated at 59.3% of GDP in 2017, has been growing over the last several years.


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 882,498

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants:13.73 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 9,442,667

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants:146.91 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: 

El Salvador’s telecom sector is challenged by low population, poor infrastructure, and unequal income distribution compounded by corruption and criminal influence; liberal regulation promotes mobile penetration in replacement of fixed-line density; operators testing 5G in 2020 (2020)


domestic:growth in fixed-line services 14 per 100, has slowed in the face of mobile-cellular competition at 147 per 100 (2019)

international:country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

multiple privately owned national terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by cable TV networks that carry international channels; hundreds of commercial radio broadcast stations and 1 government-owned radio broadcast station; transition to digital transmission to begin in 2018 along with adaptation of the Japanese-Brazilian Digital Standard (ISDB-T)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 2,153,776

percent of population:33.82% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 492,265

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants:8 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers:13

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers:2,545,105 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers:10.73 million mt-km (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix



total: 68 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 73

Airports - with paved runways

total: 5 (2017)

over 3,047 m:1 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m:1 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m:2 (2017)

under 914 m:1 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 63 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m:1 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m:11 (2013)

under 914 m:51 (2013)


2 (2013)


total: 13 km (2014)

narrow gauge:12.5 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 135


total: 9,012 km (2017)

paved:5,341 km (2017)

unpaved:3,671 km (2017)

country comparison to the world: 138


(Rio Lempa River is partially navigable by small craft) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 2

by type:other 2 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 175

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Puerto Cutuco

oil terminal(s):Acajutla offshore terminal

Military and Security

Military and security forces

the Armed Force of El Salvador (La Fuerza Armada de El Salvador, FAES): Army of El Salvador (Ejercito de El Salvador, ES), Navy of El Salvador (Fuerza Naval de El Salvador, FNES), Salvadoran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Salvadorena, FAS); Ministry of Justice and Public Security: National Civil Police (Policia Nacional Civil, PNC) (2021)

note: supporting the National Police (Ministry of Interior) in countering gang violence and drug trafficking is a primary mission for the FAES

Military expenditures

1.2% of GDP (2019)

1.1% of GDP (2018)

1% of GDP (2017)

1% of GDP (2016)

1% of GDP (2015)

country comparison to the world: 111

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Armed Force of El Salvador (FAES) has approximately 21,000 active troops (17,000 Army; 2,000 Navy; 2,000 Air Force) (2021)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the FAES is dependent on a mix of mostly older imported platforms, largely from the US; since 2010, the FAES has received small amounts of equipment from Chile, Israel, Spain, and the US (2020)

Military deployments

170 Mali (MINUSMA) (Jan 2021)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 16-22 years of age for voluntary male or female service; service obligation is 12 months, with 11 months for officers and NCOs (2012)

Military - note

in recent years, about half of the Army was reportedly deployed on internal security duties in support of the National Civil Police to combat gang violence, organized crime, and narcotics trafficking, as well as assisting with border security (2021)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary, in 1992, with final agreement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified in the ICJ decision, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 71,500 (2018)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for cocaine; small amounts of marijuana produced for local consumption; significant use of cocaine

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